百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经预测

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[百利机经] 2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 网络 发布时间:2017-06-10 直达下载地址

摘要:托福考试真题对考生来说价值非常大,因此2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经预测涵盖了近年托福考试真题,能起到练习的真正目的。

关键词:2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经预测,2017年6月25日托福考试机经预测
机经内容:

  本文给考生带来2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经预测。由于托福阅读真题完整题目难以获取,较难预测。百利天下为考生准备了实用的真题测练、经典加试,以及词汇题汇总。机经内容非常完整,有英文原文和答案。希望考生在得到很好的命中率之余,能够多掌握托福考试阅读真题的答题方法。下面是本次托福考试阅读机经内容的一部分展示,获取完整机经内容,请登录后直接下载。

  2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经之真题测练(部分内容):

  20150110 Artisans in Sixteenth-Century Europe

  For centuries European artisans had operated in small, autonomous handcraft businesses, but by the sixteenth century an evolving economic system—moving toward modern capitalism, with its free-market pricing, new organization of production, investments, and so on—had started to erode their stable and relatively prosperous position. What forces contributed to the decline of the artisan?

  In a few industries there appeared technological innovations that cost more to install and operate than artisans—even associations of artisans— could afford. For example, in iron production, such specialized equipment as blast furnaces, tilt hammers, wire-drawing machines, and stamping, rolling, and slitting mills became more familiar components of the industry. Thus the need for fixed capital (equipment and buildings used in production) soared. Besides these items, expensive in their own right, facilities for water, storage, and deliveries were needed. In addition, pig (raw) iron turned out by blast furnaces could not be forged until refined further in a new intermediate stage. In late sixteenth-century Antwerp, where a skilled worker earned 125 to 250 guilders a year, a large blast furnace alone cost 3,000 guilders, and other industrial equipment was equally or more expensive.

  Raw materials, not equipment, constituted artisans' major expense in most traders, however. Whereas in 1583 an Antwerp silk weaver paid 12 guilders for a loom (and made small payments over many years to pay off the debt for purchasing the loom), every six weeks he or she had to lay out 24 guilders for the 2 pounds of raw silk required to make a piece of cloth. Thus access to cheap and plentiful primary materials was a constant preoccupation for independent producers. Using local materials might allow even the poorest among them to avoid reliance on merchant suppliers. The loss of nearby sources could therefore be devastating. As silk cultivation waned around the Spanish cities of Cordoba and Toledo, weavers in these cities were forced to become employees of merchants who put out raw silk from Valencia and Murcia provinces. In the Dutch Republic, merchants who imported unprocessed salt from France, Portugal, and Spain gained control of the salt-refining industry once exploitation of local salt marshes was halted for fear that dikes (which held back the sea from the low-lying Dutch land) would be undermined.

  Credit was necessary for production but created additional vulnerabilities for artisans. Prices for industrial products lagged behind those of raw materials and foodstuffs, and this, coupled with rising taxes, made it difficult for many producers to repay their creditors. Periodic downturns, when food prices shot up and demand for manufactures fell off, drove them further into debt or even into bankruptcy, from which they might emerge only by agreeing to sell their products exclusively to merchants or fellow artisans who extended them loans. Frequent enough during periods of growth, such credit crises became deeper and lasted longer after about 1570, as did war-related disruptions of raw-material supplies and markets.

  Artisans' autonomy was imperiled, too, by restrictions on their access to markets. During the sixteenth century, a situation like this often resulted from the concentration of export trade in a few great storage and distribution centers. The disappearance of regional markets where weavers in Flanders (what is now northern Belgium) had previously bought flax and sold linen left them at the mercy of big-city middlemen, who quickly turned them into domestic workers. In a similar fashion, formerly independent producers in southern Wiltshire in England, who had bought yarn from spinners or local brokers and sold their cloth to merchants in nearby Salisbury, became subject to London merchants who monopolized both wool supplies and woolens exports.

  With good reason, finally, urban artisans feared the growth of industries in the countryside. For one thing, they worried that the spread of village crafts would reduce their supply of raw materials, driving up prices. City producers also knew that rural locations enjoyed lower living costs, wages, and taxes, and often employed fewer or simplified processes. These advantages became a major preoccupation as competition intensified in the 1570s and 1580s

  Paragraph 1

  For centuries European artisans had operated in small, autonomous handcraft businesses, but by the sixteenth century an evolving economic system—moving toward modern capitalism, with its free-market pricing, new organization of production, investments, and so on—had started to erode their stable and relatively prosperous position. What forces contributed to the decline of the artisan?

  1. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. In the sixteenth century, the European economy moved toward a system of free-market pricing, new ways of production, and investments.

  B. Before the sixteenth century, European makers of handcrafts enjoyed stability, autonomy, and relative prosperity.

  C. By the sixteenth century, the rise of capitalism began to weaken the autonomy and relative prosperity of European artisans.

  D. European artisans operated small, autonomous businesses before modern capitalism emerged in the sixteenth century.

  Paragraph 2

  In a few industries there appeared technological innovations that cost more to install and operate than artisans—even associations of artisans— could afford. For example, in iron production, such specialized equipment as blast furnaces, tilt hammers, wire-drawing machines, and stamping, rolling, and slitting mills became more familiar components of the industry. Thus the need for fixed capital (equipment and buildings used in production) soared. Besides these items, expensive in their own right, facilities for water, storage, and deliveries were needed. In addition, pig (raw) iron turned out by blast furnaces could not be forged until refined further in a new intermediate stage. In late sixteenth-century Antwerp, where a skilled worker earned 125 to 250 guilders a year, a large blast furnace alone cost 3,000 guilders, and other industrial equipment was equally or more expensive.

  2. The word “Besides” in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. In addition to

  B. More important than

  C. Different from

  D. Together with

  3. According to paragraph 2, how did technological advances contribute to the economic decline of artisans?

  A. Artisans had no place to store or use the new machines.

  B. Goods produced by the new technology were cheaper than those produced by artisans.

  C. The fixed costs of remaining in business became very high.

  D. Artisans did not know how to use the new machines.

  2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经之经典加试(部分内容):

  威尼斯盐业

  第一段:威尼斯原本也是产盐的,但是产fine salt 经验,但是需要粗盐coarse salt的时候,就要进口;以及有一次天灾,产盐区1/3都受到影响,所以要import,(问什么时候要进口,双选)。

  第二段:X给盐商补偿金subsidy,(好像这里有一个指代题)这个补偿金后来越来越高,商人宁愿花高价去收购盐,以获得它。补偿金enable商人从东地中海eastern Mediterranean进口印度香料spice, 以及rice,再贩卖到西欧。(有问他们为什么愿意花高价买盐)。说香料和米利润高,于是威尼斯就发达了。

  第三段:和中国**不一样,威尼斯官方不拥有盐,但是对盐业起到调节作用。(此处有问中国是什么样的。我选的是官方是拥有盐的,并且对盐业调节)。威尼斯给商人发牌照license,还制定盐的价格,要求在哪里买等。它们还负责maintain一些建筑(此处有一个词汇题,是形容建筑的。选项一是numerous, 二是magnificent)。(又有一问,是排除列举题,问一下哪一个不是威尼斯**的职能。我选的是permit商人制定的价格。貌似价格是**定的。其他三个选项是:发牌照;定价格;保护建筑)

  第四段:说他们的生意越做越大,从哪里到哪里(range from……to…..这个貌似是插入题)。

  第五段:威尼斯很注重它们的reputation.重视state, 签订contract合同。合同里规定stipulate(词汇题,选项为require; assume; suggest) 威尼斯是它们的唯一供应商。

  第六段:好像有一次希腊那边供给出了问题,威尼斯还是履行了合同,就是为了维护他的市场。(有考到词汇题ruthlessly无情地; 答案应该是without mercy) 威尼斯还有了自己的舰队,也是为了让大家conform with。(有问关于舰队的题目,问为什么提到它。好像是因为它也是一种手段)。

  2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经之词汇汇总(部分内容):

词汇 同义词 释义
configuration arrangement 配置
confine restrict to 界限
conform to match 符合;遵照
congestion crowd 拥挤
congregate gather 聚集
consensus agreement 一致
consistent harmonious 协调的
conspicuous obvious 显而易见的
constant continued 不变的;恒定的
constitute compose 组成,构成
constraint limit 限制   
construct built 建造
consult ask 咨询
contemporary at that time 当代的
contract into participate 参加
contradictory conflicting 矛盾的,冲突的
controversy debate 争论
conventional standard 常见的,惯例的
conversely in contrast 相反
correspond to match 符合于…
counter combat 战斗
counterpart equivalent  等价物

  以上就是2017年6月25日托福考试阅读机经预测,登录后下载获取完整托福机经内容。希望考生能够抽出更多时间来准备和练习这些真题,做好充分准备。

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2017年6月25日托福阅读机经之高频词汇.pdf 2017年6月25日托福阅读机经之经典加试.pdf 2017年6月25日托福阅读机经之真题测练.pdf
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