百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经预测

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[百利机经] 2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2017-08-11 直达下载地址

摘要:要想攻克托福阅读单项,需要通过大量的阅读练习来提高自己的阅读速度和答题的准确度。2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经预测包括2013-2016年考试真题,通过这些题目练习,让你提升阅读能力。

关键词:2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经预测,2017年8月26日托福考试机经预测
机经内容:

  有百利天下托福考试命中率怎么样呢?我们无法确保100%命中,因为那不科学。但是,从2015-2017年不断改革和优化过程中,百利机经命中率已经从33%提升到92.3%。很多考生用了百利机经之后,在托福考试中遇到原题,从而能够更有把握取得高分。2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经预测,为考生准备了实用的真题测练、经典加试,以及词汇题汇总。机经内容非常完整,有英文原文和答案。希望考生在得到很好的命中率之余,能够多掌握托福考试阅读真题的答题方法。下面是本次托福考试阅读机经内容的一部分展示,获取完整机经内容,请登录后直接下载。

  2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经之真题测练(部分内容):

  Pest Control

  •P1: Pest control is at least as old as agriculture, as there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests. Many pest species that are native to North America, such as white-footed mice and ground moles, are more nuisance pests and are usually regulated by native predators and parasites. This situation is not true for non-indigenous pests in North America, such as brown rats and cockroaches. It is evident that measures must be undertaken to eradicate these pests. One of the most popular methods of pest control is using chemical pesticides, which can be dated back 4,500 years, when the Sumerians used sulfur compounds as insecticides. However, chemical control has its downsides. For one thing, chemical pesticides have many unintended consequences through their effects not just on the target species, but on a wide array of non-target species as well, often eliminating them and thereby upsetting the existing food webs, especially through the suppression of native predator species. For another, living organisms evolve and increase their resistance to chemical pesticides unless the target population Is completely exterminated or is rendered incapable of reproduction.

  •P2: Importation or classical biological control involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. Farmers long ago observed that enemies of pests act as controls. As early as 300 C.E., the Chinese were introducing predatory ants into their citrus orchards to control leaf-eating caterpillars. Early instances of such pest control methods were often unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves. When they adapt to the new environment and leave their enemies behind,these species can quickly get out of control and become a real problem for local populations. Because serious pests are often non-native species, biological control involves the introduction of a non-indigenous predator or parasite to control the pest. For instance, the introduction of the cactus-eating moth, a native of Argentina, into Australia effectively reduced and controlled the rapidly spreading prickly pear, which had been introduced into Australia in 1901.

  •P3: But biological control, like chemical control, can backfire. The success of the cactus-feeding moth in controlling prickly pear numbers in Australia encouraged its introduction to several West Indies islands to control prickly pear there. In time, the moth made its way to Florida, where it now threatens the existence of several native prickly pear species. The moral is that sometimes when a non-native bioagent is introduced to control a non-native pest species, it, in turn, becomes a threat that must be assessed before it can be released

  •P4: To make up for the drawbacks of both chemical and biological control methods, entomologists have invented a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests, which is known as “Integrated Pest Management" (IPM).

  IPM involves the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment.  The objective of IPM is to control the pest not at the time of a major outbreak, but at an earlier time, when the size of the population is easier to control. The approach is to rely first on natural mortality caused by weather and natural enemies, with as little disruption of the natural system as possible, and to use other methods only if they are needed to hold the pest below the economic injury level.

  •P5: IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms. Entomologists and ecologists have urged the adoption of IPM pest control since the 1970s. IPM allows for safer pest control. This includes considerable field work managing insects, plant pathogens, and weeds, and the intensity of control or no control is based on the degree of pest damage that can be tolerated, the costs of control, and the benefits to be derived.

  2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经之经典加试(部分内容):

  达尔文进化论

  关于natural selection:Darwin 的natural selection本来需要long time evolution 来验证,本文则是用了两个relatively short evolution’s examples 来support natural selection。

  开头,达尔文认为自然选择are too slow for people to witness. 首先说达尔文提出由于物种进化需要很长的时间,因此不可能会被人类观察到。但是最近的一些发现却说明某些物种进化时间很短,可以被科学家所观察。然后,提出了一个关于环境与物种生存周期的假说,还说某个科学家研究一种鱼类证明了这个假说的合理性。自然选择对生物的影响 (与达尔文的不同) 两个例子,guppy在predator多和少池塘里生活,大小不同。

  (offspring 的大小多少)和一种鸟在小岛上适应干旱( large & small) 讲 Darwin 的nature selection,开始讲到生物的自然演变要经历很长的时间,这种限制是Darwin当时不能用 experiment 证明 nature selection的原因(第一题考),然后讲了现代生物学家发现在短期可以观察到nature selection给动物的一些特性带来的变化。

  1st一种鱼,人为控制条件。有一种鱼,在predator多的时候,life-span, size, mate, reproduction都有变化,为什么变化。然后,再将一部分放入predator(掠食者)少的pool中,offspring(后代)发生了很多changes,比如比它们的ancestor(祖先) size上要大,下egg少了等等。整个实验耗时11年;举例时用guppy这种鱼,他们生活在下游时由于predator很多,所以繁殖的速度很快;但当科学家把他们带到上游生活(那里的predator很少),他们的繁殖的速度明显变慢了。这种鱼,放在下游,还有好多predator,所以这些鱼的繁殖速度加快,baby与鱼比以前大,质量差,畸形多,所以就不会超负荷。而且长得快。放在上游,并且有很少predator,它们的繁殖速度就慢,而且baby鱼不大并且生长速度慢。

  2ed一种鸟,自然条件变化。我们需要做的只是observe(观察)。讲的是finch(雀类),有关它们beak(喙)的大小的。cause是lethal drought(致命干旱)。

  举了一个bird的例子,有的嘴大有的嘴小。最小的就只能吃小的seed/nut。有一段时间干旱,种子大,死了好多鸟,可调查研究发现,死的鸟是有规律的。斯的大多是小嘴的鸟。后来天气恢复正常之后,发现那些后代鸟比以前的嘴大了。雨量充沛的话,鸟的嘴又比以前小了。当干旱(drought)时那些站着长而硬的beak的bird往往能生存下来(这里考了个生词decimation=destruction),这样一来这一地区的这种bird很快都有了长而硬的beak(考:长而硬的beak可以打碎large size的grain)。

  2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经之词汇汇总(部分内容):

词汇 同义词 释义
a case in point a good example 一个恰当的例子
a wealth of data a lot of information 数据库
abrupt sudden 突然的
accelerate speed up 加速
accessible reachable 易接近的
accordingly correspondingly 因此
account for explain 解释
accustom to use to 习惯于,适应
acute severe 严峻的
address dealt with 处理
adequate rich       充足的,富有的
adhesive sticky 粘合剂
adjacent to next to 邻近的
admiration for high opinion of 赞赏
adopt use 采用
advantageous profitable 有利的
advent arrival 到达
adverse unfavorable 不利的
advocate support 主张,拥护
aggregate accumulate 聚合
aim to do intend to do 想要做…
akin to similar to 与…相似

  以上就是2017年8月26日托福考试阅读机经预测,登录后下载获取完整托福机经内容。希望考生能够抽出更多时间来准备和练习这些真题,做好充分准备。托福考试真题、经典加试,以及托福阅读词汇题等都是考生在平时可以积累并且攻克的得分点,希望考生提前使用托福考试机经,做好充分准备。

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2017年8月26日托福阅读机经之高频词汇.pdf 2017年8月26日托福阅读机经之经典加试.pdf 2017年8月26日托福阅读机经之真题测练.pdf
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