百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经预测

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[百利机经] 2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2017-09-02 直达下载地址

摘要:2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经预测,主要针对备考时间较长的考生。机经包括高频话题和历年重点真题,帮你解决答题思路的拓展问题。

关键词:2017年9月16日托福考试阅读机经预测,2017年9月17日托福考试阅读机经预
机经内容:

  从2015-2017年不断改革和优化过程中,百利机经命中率已经从33%提升到92.3%,机经也变成包括范文、答题思路、背景知识、学术场景、常考词汇在内的一份实用性资料。本文给考生带来2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经预测。百利天下为考生准备了实用的真题测练、经典加试,以及历年高频词汇题汇总。机经内容非常完整,有英文原文、答案和解析内容。下面是2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经预测部分内容展示,获取完整机经内容,请登录后直接下载。

  2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经之真题测练(部分内容):

  2014-8-16CN Hunting and the Setting of Inner Eurasia

  Inner Eurasia refers to the large continental area extending from Russia in the west to the Pacific Ocean, and to the north of Iran, India, and most of China. The first systematic colonization of parts of Inner Eurasia occurred about 80,000 to 90,000 years ago, which is relatively late in human history compared with Africa, Europe, and southern Asia. Why was it difficult to settle?

  The long, cold, arid winters of this region’s steppes (grass covered plains) poised two distinctive problems for human settlers. The first was hot to keep warm. Humans may have used fire even a million years ago. Presumably their ability to scavenge animal carcasses meant that they could use skins or furs for warmth. However, there are no signs of hearths before about 200,000 years ago. This suggests that humans used fire opportunistically and had not yet domesticated it enough to survive the harsh winters of Ice Age Inner Eurasia.

  The second, even trickier problem was getting food during the long winters. It was not that Inner Eurasia lacked sources of food. The problem was that the food was of the wrong kind, and it was not always available. Humans could not exploit the abundant grasses of the steppes, and most of the edible plants died off in winter. So, for long periods of each year, it was necessary to rely mainly on meat. However, hunting is a more difficult, dangerous, and unreliable way of life than gathering. Animals, unlike plants, can evade predators and may even fight back. Hunters must also cover more ground than gatherers.

  Setting Inner Eurasia meant overcoming these difficulties. Systematic and reliable hunting methods meant more than the development of new technologies, they also demanded new social structures. According to the formulation of archaeologist Lewis Binford, in a typical hunter/collector food-gathering strategy parties of hunters leave camps with very specific goals in mind, based on intimate knowledge of their intended prey. They may by away for days or weeks at a time and will often store their kill at specific storage sites, from which they will bring food back to a base camp when needed. As a result, they move their base camps less often than in forager societies, but they range more widely, their movements are more carefully planned, and so are their methods of storage.

  Thus, hunters have to plan in advance and in great detail. They need reliable information about the movements and habits of animal prey over large areas, which can be secured only by maintaining regular contacts with neighboring groups. Finally, they need reliable methods of storage because, where plant foods cannot provide a dietary safety net, planning has to be precise and detailed to ensure that there is enough to tide them over in periods of shortage. Such planning appears in the choice of hunting gear, in the selection of routes and prey, in the choice of companions and timing, in the maintenance of communications with neighbors, and in the methods of storage. Failure at any point can be fatal for the entire group.

  Hunting strategies also imply greater social complexity. The regular exchange of information and sometimes of material goods is critical not only within groups, but also between groups scattered over large distances. This increases the importance of symbolic exchanges of both goods and information, and makes it necessary to clarify group identity. Internally, groups may split for long periods as hunting parties travel over great distances. All in all, each group has to exist and survive in several distinct configurations.

  For these reasons, archaeologist Clive Gamble has argued that the difficulties of setting the Eurasian heartland arose less from the technological than from the social and organizational features of human communities before 120,000 years ago. There is little or no archaeological evidence that these communities engaged in such practices as detailed planning or widespread contacts. Nor is there any physical evidence for storage, raw materials all come from within a radius of 50 kilometers— and usually less than 5 kilometers—of the sites where they were used.

  2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经之经典加试(部分内容):

  威尼斯盐业

  第一段:威尼斯原本也是产盐的,但是产fine salt 经验,但是需要粗盐coarse salt的时候,就要进口;以及有一次天灾,产盐区1/3都受到影响,所以要import,(问什么时候要进口,双选)。

  第二段:X给盐商补偿金subsidy,(好像这里有一个指代题)这个补偿金后来越来越高,商人宁愿花高价去收购盐,以获得它。补偿金enable商人从东地中海eastern Mediterranean进口印度香料spice, 以及rice,再贩卖到西欧。(有问他们为什么愿意花高价买盐)。说香料和米利润高,于是威尼斯就发达了。

  第三段:和中国**不一样,威尼斯官方不拥有盐,但是对盐业起到调节作用。(此处有问中国是什么样的。我选的是官方是拥有盐的,并且对盐业调节)。威尼斯给商人发牌照license,还制定盐的价格,要求在哪里买等。它们还负责maintain一些建筑(此处有一个词汇题,是形容建筑的。选项一是numerous, 二是magnificent)。(又有一问,是排除列举题,问一下哪一个不是威尼斯**的职能。我选的是permit商人制定的价格。貌似价格是**定的。其他三个选项是:发牌照,定价格,保护建筑)

  第四段:说他们的生意越做越大,从哪里到哪里(range from……to…..这个貌似是插入题)。

  第五段:威尼斯很注重它们的reputation.重视state, 签订contract合同。合同里规定stipulate(词汇题,选项为require; assume; suggest) 威尼斯是它们的唯一供应商。

  第六段:好像有一次希腊那边供给出了问题,威尼斯还是履行了合同,就是为了维护他的市场。(有考到词汇题ruthlessly无情地;答案应该是without mercy) 威尼斯还有了自己的舰队,也是为了让大家conform with。(有问关于舰队的题目,问为什么提到它。好像是因为它也是一种手段)。

  2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经之词汇汇总(部分内容):

词汇 同义词 释义
consensus agreement 一致
consistent harmonious 协调的
conspicuous obvious 显而易见的
constant continued 不变的;恒定的
constitute compose 组成,构成
constraint limit 限制   
construct built 建造
consult ask 咨询
contemporary at that time 当代的
contract into participate 参加
contradictory conflicting 矛盾的,冲突的
controversy debate 争论
conventional standard 常见的,惯例的
conversely in contrast 相反
correspond to match 符合于…
counter combat 战斗
counterpart equivalent  等价物
couple with combined with 与…相结合,伴随
courteous polite 有礼貌的;谦恭的
critical probative 检验的

  以上就是2017年9月16&17日托福考试阅读机经预测,点击文档登录后下载获取完整托福机经内容。希望考生能够抽出更多时间来准备和练习这些真题,做好充分准备。托福考试真题、经典加试,以及托福阅读词汇题等都是考生在平时可以积累并且攻克的得分点,希望考生提前使用托福考试机经,做好充分准备。

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2017年9月16&17日托福阅读机经之高频词汇.pdf 2017年9月16&17日托福阅读机经之经典加试.pdf 2017年9月16&17日托福阅读机经之真题测练.pdf
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