百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经预测

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[百利机经] 2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2017-11-04 直达下载地址

摘要:近期托福考试取得了很好的命中率,四个单项都多次命中原题。2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经预测,包括范文、答题思路、背景知识、学术场景、常考词汇在内的一份实用性资料。

关键词:2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经预测,2017年11月18日托福考试机经预
机经内容:

  2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经预测机经包括范文、答题思路、背景知识、学术场景、常考词汇在内的一份实用性资料。百利天下为考生准备了实用的真题测练、经典加试,以及历年高频词汇题汇总。机经内容非常完整,有英文原文、答案和解析内容。此外,小编还针对托福阅读中常考的词汇题进行了汇总,每一次考试都有很高的命中率。下面是2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经预测部分内容展示,获取完整机经内容,请登录后直接下载。

  托福阅读机经预测简介:

  阅读真题是指2017年之前考过的阅读真题,真实还原全英文完整文章、题目、答案。考生可以利用这部分做测试和练习使用,直接接触近期考题,让你更熟悉托福阅读考生难度。托福阅读词汇题是必考题目,而且每一篇文章都会涉及3-4题来考查,因此积累词汇是有必要的。词汇来自2015-2017年托福考试阅读中出现的词汇题,确保能够将托福阅读词汇题一网打尽。阅读词汇题是按照“词汇+同义词+释义”的形式,考生记忆的时候更加方便。

  2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经之真题测练(部分内容):

  真题来源:The role of the Ocean in Controlling Climate

  •P1: Computer models are one of the tools that scientists use to understand the climate and make projections about how it will respond to changes such as rising greenhouse gas levels. The computer models used to predict climate change are far more sophisticated than the one that forecasts the weather. They are multi-layered programs in which scientists try to replicate the physics behind things such as rainfall, ocean currents, and the melting of sea ice. Because of their complexity and size, supercomputers are used to run full-scale climate models. Much of the uncertainty in their outputs comes from the way that various aspects of the climate are represented by different models, and even more so, because there are aspects of climate that are not well understood one of which is how the ocean impacts climate.

  •P2: As one of the planet's principal carbon absorbers, the ocean soaks up roughly one-third of all human carbon emissions, reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its associated global effects. This benefit stems from the fact that numerous marine plants and algae, especially phytoplankton, are photosynthetic, meaning they have the ability to use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into energy. Then what controls the amount of phytoplankton? There are several limiting factors, but results from a recent experiment suggest that in areas of the ocean where other nutrients are plentiful, iron may be one of the most important and. until recently, unrecognized variables controlling phytoplankton production. Some researchers claimed that adding iron to the sea could induce phytoplankton blooms, which might alleviate the impact of global warming by consuming a significant amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. But this radical approach was rather controversial. It was demonstrated for the first time after research conducted by the University of Liverpool that carbon, absorbed by algae in an iron-fertilized bloom, can sink to the ocean bed, where scientists believe it will remain in a fluff layer for many centuries or longer.

  •P3: In the ocean, carbon dioxide is also removed and placed into long term storage by the burial of sedimentary strata, especially coal and black shale, which stores organic carbon from undecayed biomass and carbonate rocks like limestone. However, when deposits of limestone become exposed and weathered on land or are recycled in the sea, carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. Gas hydrates are another threat to global warming. Gas hydrates are crystalline solids of water, which release massive amounts of methane gas when ocean temperatures increase Consequently, massive hydrate dissolution events are possible causes of some of the abrupt increases in temperature seen in the geologic record. Besides, localized melt-downs have caused massive continental slope failure, which can present a geological hazard for shelf oil and gas production.

  •p4: The ocean is also a great reservoir and transporter of heat. Heat from the ocean warms the atmosphere and fuels tropical storms. Heat is transported by currents from the equator to the poles. Evaporation from me ocean also supplies the precipitation that creates fields of snow and ice at high latitudes. Snow and ice coverage change the reflectivity of Earth's surface and am an important influence on how much incoming radiation is either absorbed or reflected. Furthermore, clouds and water vapor in the atmosphere come mainly from the sea and strongly influence climate. Surprisingly, clouds are one of the least understood and most poorly modeled parts of the climate change equation. Most climate modeling grids fail to take into account common-sized cloud formations. To accurately depict how individual clouds form and disappear, for instance, the computers that model climate change would need to be a million times faster. For now, the effects of clouds have to be estimated. But scientists say complexity doesn't guarantee accuracy and the best test of a model is to check it against reality.

  2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经之经典加试(部分内容):

  苏美尔文明:

  It is an astonishing fact that human civilization should have emerged into the light of history in two separate places at just about the same time. Between 3,500 and 3,000 B.C. when Egypt was being united under pharaonic rule, another great civilization arose in Mesopotamia, the “land between the rivers”. And for close to three thousand years, the two rival centers retained their distinct characters, even though they had contact with each other from their earliest beginnings, and their destinies were interwoven in many ways. The pressure that forced the inhabitants of both regions to abandon the pattern of Neolithic village life may well have been the same. But the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, unlike that of the Nile, is not a narrow fertile strip protected by desert on either side. It resembles a wide, shallow trough with few natural defenses, crisscrossed by two great rivers and their tributaries, and is easily encroached upon from any direction.

  Thus the facts of geography tend to discourage the idea of uniting the entire Mesopotamian area under a single head. Rulers who had this ambition did not appear, so far as we know, until about a thousand years after the beginnings of Mesopotamian civilization, and they succeeded in carrying it out only for brief periods and at the cost of almost continuous warfare. As a consequence, the political history of ancient Mesopotamia has no underlying theme of the sort that divine kingship provides for Egypt. Local rivalries, foreign incursions, the sudden upsurge and equally sudden collapse of military power – these are its substance.

  The origin of the Sumerians remains obscure. Their language is unrelated to any other known tongue. Sometimes before 4,000 B.C. they came to southern Mesopotamia, from Persia, and there, within the next thousand years, they founded a number of city-states and developed their distinctive form of writing in cuneiform (wedge-shaped) characters on clay tablets. Unfortunately, the tangible remains of Sumerian civilization are extremely scanty compared to those of ancient Egypt. Building stone being unavailable in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians used mud brick and wood, so that almost nothing is left of their architecture except the foundation. Nor did they share the Egyptians’ concern with the hereafter; although some richly endowed tombs in the shape of vaulted chambers below ground from the early dynastic period have been found in the city of Ur. Our knowledge of Sumerian Civilization thus depends very largely on chance fragments brought to light by excavation, including vast numbers of inscribed clay tablets. Yet we have learned enough to form a general picture of this vigorous, inventive, and disciplined people.

  Each Sumerian city-state had its own local god, who was regarded as its king and owner. It also had a human ruler, the steward of the divine sovereign, who led the people in serving the deity. The local god, in turn, was expected to plead the cause of his subjects among his follow deities who controlled the forces of nature such as wind and weather, water, fertility, and the heavenly bodies. Nor was the idea of divine ownership treated as a mere pious fiction. The god was quite literally believed to own not only the territory of the city-state but also the labor power of the population and its products. All these were subject to his commands, transmitted to people by his human steward. The result was an economic system. The temple controlled the pooling of labor and resources for communal enterprises, such as the building of dikes or irrigation ditches, and it collected and distributed a considerable part of the harvest. All this required the keeping of detailed written records. Hence, we need not be surprised to find that the texts of early Sumerian inscriptions deal very largely with economic and administrative rather than religious matters, although writing was a priestly privilege.

  苏美尔的背景:美索不达米亚亚洲西南部 Tigris['taigris]底格里斯河和Euphrates幼发拉底河两河流域间的古王国,美索不达米亚古代西南亚介于底格里斯河和幼发拉底河之间的一个地区,位于现在的伊拉克境内。可能在公元前5000年以前就开始有人在此定居。这一地区孕育了众多的人类早期文明,其中包括苏美尔文明、阿卡德文明、巴比伦文明和亚述文明。蒙古侵略者在公元1258年破坏了该地区发达的灌溉系统之后,这一地区的重要性就此减小。其中巴比伦Babylon文明以其成就斐然而成为两河流域文明的典范,古巴比伦王国与古埃及、古印度和中国构成了人们所说的世界四大文明古国。

  尼罗河文明:发源于非洲尼罗河(Nile)流域,又称古埃及文明,其历史也可追溯到公元前4000年。公元前3100年左右,上埃及国王美尼斯统一上下埃及,开始了史称的埃及王朝时期,也就代表了古埃及文明的正式开始。

  2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经之词汇汇总(部分内容):

词汇 同义词 释义
contract into participate 参加
contradictory conflicting 矛盾的,冲突的
controversy debate 争论
conventional standard 常见的,惯例的
conversely in contrast 相反
correspond to match 符合于…
counter combat 战斗
counterpart equivalent  等价物
couple with combined with 与…相结合,伴随
courteous polite 有礼貌的;谦恭的
critical probative 检验的
culminate end 结束
cultivate encourage the growth of 促进(艺术、科学等)的发展
decipher figure out 解释
decisive conclusive 决定性的
deliberate intensive 深思熟虑的
dense thick 厚重的
deplete use up 消耗
deposit savings 存款,押金
derive obtain 获得

  以上是2017年11月18日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容,点击下载2017年11月18日托福考试机经完整内容,获取托福考试真题,让你熟悉和熟练掌握托福考试题目。本次机经真题较多,希望考生可以早做准备,从而预留出更多的时间来备考。

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2017年11月18日托福阅读机经之高频词汇.pdf 2017年11月18日托福阅读机经之经典加试及解析.pdf 2017年11月18日托福阅读机经之真题预测及练习 1.pdf 2017年11月18日托福阅读机经之真题预测及练习 2.pdf
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