百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测

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[百利机经] 2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2017-11-25 直达下载地址

摘要:2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测,英文原文、答案和阅读真题解析。经典加试的也尽量还原文本和题目,还包括参考答案。此外,阅读高频词汇包括2015年到2017年阅读词汇题的汇总。

关键词:2017年12月9日托福考试阅读机经预测,2017年12月10日托福考试阅读机经
机经内容:

  本文给考生带来2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测。百利天下为考生准备了实用的真题测练、经典加试,以及阅读高频词汇汇总。机经内容非常完整,有英文原文、答案和阅读真题解析。经典加试的内容也尽量还原了原文和题目,还包括参考答案。此外,阅读高频词汇包括2015年到2017年阅读词汇题的汇总。2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测只展示了部分内容,获取完整机经内容,请登录后直接下载。

  2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测之真题测练(部分内容):

  ①目录

2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测

  ②真题测练:2014-10-18CN The Origins of Writing

  It was in Egypt and Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that civilization arose, and it is there that we find the earliest examples of the key feature of civilization, writing. These examples, in the form of inscribed clay tablets that date to shortly before 3000 B.C.E., have been discovered among the archaeological remains of the Sumerians, a gifted people settled in southern Mesopotamia.

  The Egyptians were not far behind in developing writing, but we cannot follow the history of their writing in detail because they used a perishable writing material. In ancient times the banks of the Nile were lined with papyrus plants, and from the papyrus reeds the Egyptians made a form of paper, it was excellent in quality but, like any paper, fragile. Mesopotamia' s rivers boasted no such useful reeds, but its land did provide good clay, and as a consequence the clay tablet became the standard material. Though clumsy and bulky it has a virtue dear to archaeologists: it is durable. Fire, for example, which is death to papyrus paper or other writing materials such as leather and wood, simply bakes it hard, thereby making it even more durable. So when a conqueror set a Mesopotamian palace ablaze, he helped ensure the survival of any clay tablets in it. Clay, moreover, is cheap, and forming it into tablets is easy, factors that helped the clay tablet become the preferred writing material not only throughout Mesopotamia but far outside it as well, in Syria, Asia Minor, Persia, and even for a while in Crete and Greece. Excavators have unearthed clay tablets in all these lands. In the Near East they remained in use for more than two and a half millennia, and in certain areas they lasted down to the beginning of the common era until finally yielding, once and for all, to more convenient alternatives.

  The Sumerians perfected a style of writing suited to clay. This script consists of simple shapes, basically just wedge shapes and lines that could easily be incised in soft clay with a reed or wooden stylus; scholars have dubbed it cuneiform from the wedge-shaped marks (cunei in Latin) that are its hallmark. Although the ingredients are merely wedges and lines, there are hundreds of combinations of these basic forms that stand for different sounds or words. Learning these complex signs required long training and much practice, inevitably, literacy was largely limited to a small professional class, the scribes.

  The Akkadians conquered the Sumerians around the middle of the third millennium B.C.E., and they took over the various cuneiform signs used for writing Sumerian and gave them sound and word values that fit their own language. The Babylonians and Assyrians did the same, and so did peoples in Syria and Asia Minor. The literature of the Sumerians was treasured throughout the Near East, and long after Sumerian ceased to be spoken, the Babylonians and Assyrians and others kept it alive as a literary language, the way Europeans kept Latin alive after the fall of Rome. For the scribes of these non-Sumerian languages, training was doubly demanding since they had to know the values of the various cuneiform signs for Sumerian as well as their own language.

  ………………

  题目:

  1. The word "key" in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. frequent

  B. essential

  C. original

  D. familiar

  2. The word "virtue" in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. price

  B. design

  C. desirable quality

  D. physical characteristic

  2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测之经典加试(部分内容):

  ①目录

2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测

  ②真题来源:苏美尔文明

  It is an astonishing fact that human civilization should have emerged into the light of history in two separate places at just about the same time. Between 3,500 and 3,000 B.C. when Egypt was being united under pharaonic rule, another great civilization arose in Mesopotamia, the “land between the rivers”. And for close to three thousand years, the two rival centers retained their distinct characters, even though they had contact with each other from their earliest beginnings, and their destinies were interwoven in many ways. The pressure that forced the inhabitants of both regions to abandon the pattern of Neolithic village life may well have been the same. But the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, unlike that of the Nile, is not a narrow fertile strip protected by desert on either side. It resembles a wide, shallow trough with few natural defenses, crisscrossed by two great rivers and their tributaries, and is easily encroached upon from any direction.

  Thus the facts of geography tend to discourage the idea of uniting the entire Mesopotamian area under a single head. Rulers who had this ambition did not appear, so far as we know, until about a thousand years after the beginnings of Mesopotamian civilization, and they succeeded in carrying it out only for brief periods and at the cost of almost continuous warfare. As a consequence, the political history of ancient Mesopotamia has no underlying theme of the sort that divine kingship provides for Egypt. Local rivalries, foreign incursions, the sudden upsurge and equally sudden collapse of military power – these are its substance.

  The origin of the Sumerians remains obscure. Their language is unrelated to any other known tongue. Sometimes before 4,000 B.C. they came to southern Mesopotamia, from Persia, and there, within the next thousand years, they founded a number of city-states and developed their distinctive form of writing in cuneiform (wedge-shaped) characters on clay tablets. Unfortunately, the tangible remains of Sumerian civilization are extremely scanty compared to those of ancient Egypt. Building stone being unavailable in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians used mud brick and wood, so that almost nothing is left of their architecture except the foundation. Nor did they share the Egyptians’ concern with the hereafter; although some richly endowed tombs in the shape of vaulted chambers below ground from the early dynastic period have been found in the city of Ur. Our knowledge of Sumerian Civilization thus depends very largely on chance fragments brought to light by excavation, including vast numbers of inscribed clay tablets. Yet we have learned enough to form a general picture of this vigorous, inventive, and disciplined people.

  ……………………

  题目:(答案在最后)

  1. The word astonishing in the passage is closest in meaning to

  (A) important

  (B) unknown

  (C) amazing

  (D) interesting

  2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  (A) A great civilization arose in Mesopotamia, the “land between the rivers” under pharaonic rule.

  (B) Egypt and another great civilization both developed in Mesopotamia between 3500 and 3000 B.C.

  (C) A great civilization arose in Mesopotamia between 3500 and 3000 B.C. at the same time that ancient Egyptwas being united.

  (D) As Egypt was being united under pharaonic rule, a great civilization arose there.

  2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测之高频词汇(部分内容):

  ①目录

2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测
 

  ②高频词汇:

consistent harmonious 协调的
conspicuous obvious 显而易见的
constant continued 不变的;恒定的
constitute compose 组成,构成
constraint limit 限制   
construct built 建造
consult ask 咨询
contemporary at that time 当代的
contract into participate 参加
contradictory conflicting 矛盾的,冲突的
controversy debate 争论
conventional standard 常见的,惯例的
conversely in contrast 相反
correspond to match 符合于…
counter combat 战斗
counterpart equivalent  等价物
couple with combined with 与…相结合,伴随
courteous polite 有礼貌的;谦恭的
critical probative 检验的
culminate end 结束
cultivate encourage the growth of 促进(艺术、科学等)的发展
decipher figure out 解释
decisive conclusive 决定性的
deliberate intensive 深思熟虑的

  以上是2017年12月9&10日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容,点击下载2017年12月9&10日托福考试机经完整内容,获取托福考试真题,让你熟悉和熟练掌握托福考试题目。本次机经真题较多,希望考生可以早做准备,从而预留出更多的时间来备考。

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2017年12月9&10日托福阅读机经之高频词汇.pdf 2017年12月9&10日托福阅读机经之经典加试及解析.pdf 2017年12月9&10日托福阅读机经之真题预测及练习 1.pdf 2017年12月9&10日托福阅读机经之真题预测及练习 2.pdf
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