百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2018年10月14日托福考试阅读机经预测

[百利机经] 2018年10月14日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2018-09-26 直达下载地址

摘要:2018年10月14日托福考试阅读机经预测,攻克阅读占比较高的词汇题内容,还整理了很多阅读真题,能够帮助考生攻克难点问题。

关键词:2018年10月14日托福考试阅读机经预测,2018年10月14日托福考试机经预
机经内容:

  托福机经不只是真题的汇总,更是一份备考资料。每一次托福考试,百利托福机经都有三版内容,分别是机经预测、重点突破和考前冲刺。机经预测是从话题出发,每一类话题都有思路拓展和参考范文,考生可以提高答题思路,并且系统了解每一类话题的写作方向;重点突破主要针对托福口语和写作中的特殊题型,绝对词、今昔对比、三选一等,帮助考生找到切入点,从而学会举一反三;考前冲刺主要是分析托福考试动态,给考生整理12道真题,作为考前集训和练习。

  本文和大家分享2018年10月14日托福考试阅读机经预测,本版机经侧重于阅读真题练习和词汇题积累,按照阅读常考的话题类型进行分类,给出考生一些真题测练。此外,还针对托福听力话题中常出现的学术词汇,能够提高对阅读内容的理解,扫除阅读中关于学术场景的障碍。

  2018年10月14日托福考试阅读机经预测(部分内容展示):

  真题来源:2015-6-14CN Extinctions at the End of the Cretaceous

  It has long been recognized that the dinosaurs disappeared from the fossil record at the end of the Cretaceous period (65 million years ago), and as more knowledge has been gained, we have learned that many other organisms disappeared at about the same time. The microscopic plankton (free-floating plants and animals) with calcareous shells suffered massively. The foundation of the major marine food chain that led from the minute plankton to shelled animals to large marine reptiles had collapsed.

  On land it was not only the large animals that became extinct. The mammals, most of which were small, lost some 35 percent of their species worldwide. Plants were also affected. For example, in North America 79 percent did not survive, and it has been noted that the survivors were often deciduous they could lose their leaves and shut down while others could survive as seeds. As in the sea, it seems that on the land one key food chain collapsed: the one with leaves as its basic raw material. These leaves were the food of some of the mammals and of the herbivorous dinosaurs, which in turn were fed on by the carnivorous dinosaurs. Furthermore, it is most likely that these large dinosaurs had slow rates of reproduction, which always increases the risk of extinction. Crocodiles, tortoises, birds, and insects seem to have been little affected. The two first named are known to be able to survive for long periods without food, and both can be scavengers (feed on dead material). Indeed, with the deaths of so many other animals and with much dead plant material, the food chain based on detritus would have been well-supplied. Many insects feed on dead material; furthermore, most have at least one resting stage in which they are very resistant to damage. In unfavorable conditions some may take a long time to develop: there is a record of a beetle larva living in dead wood for over 40 years before becoming an adult. Some birds were scavengers, but the survival of many lineages is a puzzle.

  What happened in the biological story just after these extinctions what is found in and just above the boundary layer between the deposits of the Cretaceous and those of the Tertiary (65. C2.6 million years ago), termed the K/T boundary For a very short period the dominant microorganisms in marine deposits were usually diatoms and din flagellates (both single-celled types of plankton).The important feature for the survival of both these groups was the ability to form protective cysts (sacs around organisms) that rested on the sea floor. Above these, in the later deposits, are the remains of other minute plankton, but the types are quite different from those of the Late Cretaceous. In terrestrial deposits a sudden and dramatic increase in fern plant spores marks the boundary in many parts of the world; ferns are early colonizers of barren landscapes. The fern spike (sudden increase), as it is termed, has been found also in some marine deposits (such was the abundance of fern spores blown around the world), and it occurs in exactly the same layer of deposit where the plankton disappear. We can conclude that the major marine and terrestrial events occurred simultaneously.

  Many theories have been put forward for the extinction of the dinosaurs, but most of them can be dismissed. Since 1980 there have been more focused, but still controversy-ridden, investigations. In that year Louis and Walter Alvarez and colleagues from the University of California published their research on the amounts of various metals in the boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks (K/T boundary) in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand. They had found, accidentally, that a rare metal, iridium, suddenly became very abundant exactly at the boundary and then slowly fell away. This phenomenon, known as the iridium spike, has now been identified in K/T boundary deposits in over a hundred other sites in the world. Iridium occurs in meteorites and volcanic material, but in the latter case it is accompanied by elevated levels of nickel and chromium. These other metals are not especially abundant at the K/T boundary. The Alvarezes concluded that the iridium spike was due to a large asteroid that struck Earth 65 million years ago.

  问题:

  1. The word “recognized” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. suspected

  B. argued

  C. assumed

  D. accepted

  2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following was true of small plank tonic organisms at the end of the Cretaceous

  A. They lost their main sources of food.

  B. They developed calcareous shells.

  C. They decreased greatly in number as did many other types of organisms.

  D. They replaced other minute organisms as a food source in the major marine food chain.

  3. Which of the following statements is NOT supported by the information provided in paragraph 2 about extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous

  A. About 35 percent of mammal species were lost.

  B. 79 percent of North American plants disappeared.

  C. Most birds, tortoises, and crocodiles escaped extinction.

  D. Deciduous trees were especially likely to go extinct.

  4. According to paragraph 2, which of the following factors probably contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs

  A. The length of time it took dinosaurs to reproduce

  B. Large quantities of dead material disturbing their habitats

  C. Increased competition for food from scavengers

  D. An increase in carnivore populations

  5. In paragraph 2, why does the author provide the information that there is a record of a beetle larva living in dead wood for over 40 years before becoming an adult?

  A. To help explain why insects were less likely to go extinct than other species

  B. To show that not all species that relied on trees disappeared during the late Cretaceous

  C. To suggest that insects that lived long ago had much longer life spans than those living today

  D. To support the claim that conditions at the end of the Cretaceous were highly unfavorable

  6. The word “simultaneously” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. rapidly

  B. repeatedly

  C. at the same time

  D. for different reasons

  以上是2018年10月14日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容,点击下载2018年10月14日托福考试机经完整内容,获取托福考试真题,让你熟悉和熟练掌握托福考试题目。本次机经真题较多,希望考生可以早做准备,从而预留出更多的时间来备考。

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