百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2018年10月20日托福考试阅读机经预测

[百利机经] 2018年10月20日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2018-10-08 直达下载地址

摘要:本文和大家分享2018年10月20日托福考试阅读机经预测,从真题测练和阅读词汇解析两个方面,帮助考生攻克阅读中的难点,希望对大家有帮助。

关键词:2018年10月20日托福考试阅读机经预测,2018年10月20日托福考试机经预
机经内容:

  托福机经不只是真题的汇总,更是一份备考资料。每一次托福考试,百利托福机经都有三版内容,分别是机经预测、重点突破和考前冲刺。机经预测是从话题出发,每一类话题都有思路拓展和参考范文,考生可以提高答题思路,并且系统了解每一类话题的写作方向;重点突破主要针对托福口语和写作中的特殊题型,绝对词、今昔对比、三选一等,帮助考生找到切入点,从而学会举一反三;考前冲刺主要是分析托福考试动态,给考生整理12道真题,作为考前集训和练习。

  本文和大家分享2018年10月20日托福考试阅读机经预测,本版机经侧重于阅读真题练习和词汇题积累,按照阅读常考的话题类型进行分类,给出考生一些真题测练。此外,还针对托福听力话题中常出现的学术词汇,能够提高对阅读内容的理解,扫除阅读中关于学术场景的障碍。

  2018年10月20日托福考试阅读机经预测(部分内容展示):

  真题来源:2015-10-24CN Pest Control

  •P1: Pest control is at least as old as agriculture, as there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests. Many pest species that are native to North America, such as white-footed mice and ground moles, are more nuisance pests and are usually regulated by native predators and parasites. This situation is not true for non-indigenous pests in North America, such as brown rats and cockroaches. It is evident that measures must be undertaken to eradicate these pests. One of the most popular methods of pest control is using chemical pesticides, which can be dated back 4,500 years, when the Sumerians used sulfur compounds as insecticides. However, chemical control has its downsides. For one thing, chemical pesticides have many unintended consequences through their effects not just on the target species, but on a wide array of non-target species as well, often eliminating them and thereby upsetting the existing food webs, especially through the suppression of native predator species. For another, living organisms evolve and increase their resistance to chemical pesticides unless the target population is completely exterminated or is rendered incapable of reproduction.

  •P2: Importation or classical biological control involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. Farmers long ago observed that enemies of pests act as controls. As early as 300 C.E., the Chinese were introducing predatory ants into their citrus orchards to control leaf-eating caterpillars. Early instances of such pest control methods were often unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves. When they adapt to the new environment and leave their enemies behind,these species can quickly get out of control and become a real problem for local populations. Because serious pests are often non-native species, biological control involves the introduction of a non-indigenous predator or parasite to control the pest. For instance, the introduction of the cactus-eating moth, a native of Argentina, into Australia effectively reduced and controlled the rapidly spreading prickly pear, which had been introduced into Australia in 1901.

  •P3: But biological control, like chemical control, can backfire. The success of the cactus-feeding moth in controlling prickly pear numbers in Australia encouraged its introduction to several West Indies islands to control prickly pear there. In time, the moth made its way to Florida, where it now threatens the existence of several native prickly pear species. The moral is that sometimes when a non-native bioagent is introduced to control a non-native pest species, it, in turn, becomes a threat that must be assessed before it can be released • P4: To make up for the drawbacks of both chemical and biological control methods, entomologists have invented a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests, which is known as “Integrated Pest Management" (IPM). IPM involves the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment.

  The objective of IPM is to control the pest not at the time of a major outbreak, but at an earlier time, when the size of the population is easier to control. The approach is to rely first on natural mortality caused by weather and natural enemies, with as little disruption of the natural system as possible, and to use other methods only if they are needed to hold the pest below the economic injury level.

  •P5: IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms. Entomologists and ecologists have urged the adoption of IPM pest control since the 1970s. IPM allows for safer pest control. This includes considerable field work managing insects, plant pathogens, and weeds, and the intensity of control or no control is based on the degree of pest damage that can be tolerated, the costs of control, and the benefits to be derived.

  题目:

  1. The word "evident" in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. surprising

  B. obvious

  C. believed

  D. frustrating

  2. What can be inferred from paragraph 1 about nonindigenous pests such as brown rats and cockroaches?

  A. Attempts to limit the size of their populations have been unsuccessful.

  B. They have inhabited North America longer than white-footed mice and ground moles.

  C. Their numbers cannot usually be controlled by native predators and parasites.

  D. They do not pose as many problems for humans as do white-footed mice and ground moles.

  3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  A. Chemical pesticides often eliminate species other than the intended target and thereby upset food webs, especially by suppressing native predator species.

  B. Native predator species are often eliminated by chemical pesticides that are intended to have consequences for other pests.

  C. Chemical pesticides upset existing food webs by eliminating native species and by increasing the number of nonnative predators.

  D. The effects of chemical pesticides on a wide array of food webs and native predators are often unintended.

  4. In paragraph 2, the author mentions the Chinese use of predatory ants to control pests in order to

  A. support the claim that using pests’ natural enemies is a pest control technique that has been known for a long time.

  B. show that pests’ enemies introduced unintentionally have proved more dangerous than those introduced intentionally.

  C. help explain that when pests' enemies find enough resources, they can become pests themselves.

  D. argue that a pest insect in its native habitat always has a predator in that habitat.

  5. According to paragraph 2, why is a species likely to become a pest when it is introduced into a new habitat?

  A. The species becomes more effective at escaping from its enemies.

  B. The species has no natural predators in its new habitat.

  C. The species adapts to habitat outside its natural range.

  D. The species does not have to compete for resources with other plants and animals.

  6. In paragraph 2, the discussion of the cactus-eating moth and the prickly pear in Australia illustrates which of the following about biological control?

  A. Nonnative pests cannot be controlled through biological means once they have begun to spread rapidly.

  B. A nonnative pest can sometimes be controlled by the introduction of a nonnative predator.

  C. A nonindigenous pest can be controlled only by a predator that comes from the same original habitat as the pest.

  D. A native pest can be controlled by either a native or a nonnative predator.

  以上是2018年10月20日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容,点击下载2018年10月20日托福考试机经完整内容,获取托福考试真题,让你熟悉和熟练掌握托福考试题目。本次机经真题较多,希望考生可以早做准备,从而预留出更多的时间来备考。

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