百利天下出国考试 > 托福 > 托福机经 > 2018年12月8日托福考试阅读机经预测

[百利机经] 2018年12月8日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2018-11-24 直达下载地址

摘要:本文和大家分享2018年12月8日托福考试阅读机经预测,以真题为例,希望能够帮助考生做一些备考练习,从而提升能力。

关键词:2018年12月8日托福考试阅读机经预测,2018年12月8日托福考试机经预测
机经内容:

  托福机经不只是真题的汇总,更是一份备考资料。每一次托福考试,百利托福机经都有三版内容,分别是机经预测、重点突破和考前冲刺。机经预测是从话题出发,每一类话题都有思路拓展和参考范文,考生可以提高答题思路,并且系统了解每一类话题的写作方向;重点突破主要针对托福口语和写作中的特殊题型,绝对词、今昔对比、三选一等,帮助考生找到切入点,从而学会举一反三;考前冲刺主要是分析托福考试动态,给考生整理12道真题,作为考前集训和练习。

  本文和大家分享2018年12月8日托福考试阅读机经预测,本版机经侧重于阅读真题练习和词汇题积累,按照阅读常考的话题类型进行分类,给出考生一些真题测练。此外,还针对托福听力话题中常出现的学术词汇,能够提高对阅读内容的理解,扫除阅读中关于学术场景的障碍。

  2018年12月8日托福考试阅读机经预测(部分内容展示):

  真题来源:2014-3-23CN Environmental Impact of the Anasazi

  P1: A major question in the archaeology of the southwestern region of the United States is why so many impressive settlements, and even entire regions, were abandoned in prehistoric times. Archaeologist Tim Kohler has suggested that the nature of human-environmental interaction was an important reason in the case of the Anasazi people. The actual case study that Kohler relies on is from the Dolores River basin of southwest Colorado, where the Anasazi seem to have moved in about A.D. 600. Over the following couple of centuries, the population increased, and they aggregated (or gathered) into villages, but by about A.D. 900 the area began to be abandoned. Other archaeologists have identified the immediate cause of this abandonment to be a series of short growing seasons that would have put pressure on corn production at that high an altitude. Kohler, however, assets that a growing population led to human-environmental interactions that caused people to live in villages, intensify agrarian food production, deforest the region, deplete the local soils, and ultimately abandon the area.

  P2: Kohler uses several kinds of evidence to show that human effects, not solely climatic factors, were important factors in the abandonment of settlements. One key indicator of change in the environment surrounding these prehistoric settlements is the wood that was used there. Archaeological study of wood charcoal found in hearths dating to the various episodes of occupation indicated that the species use changed in a patterned way. Over time there was a decline in the use of juniper and pinon (native, slow-growing species of trees) and an increase in woody shrubs and fast-growing cottonwood. The species of wood used in the construction of buildings also changed. Fewer pinon were being used, and those that were used seem to be from increasingly old trees, while juniper continued to be from young trees. The implication is that the forest that did remain was changing to relatively more junipers, a tree that is more fire resistant, better able to reproduce in open settings, and less desirable for construction than pinon. Kohler argues that pinon was disappearing from the locale of settlements and that this put an additional nutritional strain on the population, which used nuts from the tree as well as its wood. The relative proportion of different species of animals hunted by people in the region also changed progressively. A final source of evidence was the seeds found in the archaeological deposits, which had blown or been brought to the settlement. As time went on, there was a substantial increase in seeds from pioneer plants, attesting both to agricultural intensification and to an increasingly disturbed local environment.

  P3: This evidence has convinced Kohler of the importance of human impact in degrading the local environment. His interpretation of the situation is that by about A.D. 840, people had aggregated into villages in favorable settings because of their competitive organizational advantages over smaller units in the face of growing population and depletion of local wild resources. Hence, the very nature of the initial slash-and-burn agriculture encouraged a further dependence on agriculture and the aggregation of people into denser settlements. However, there are costs to aggregation, such as the increasing distance to usable fields, the heavier pressure on local soils, and the accompanying increase in agricultural risk. The Anasazi responded to this by further intensification, such as water-control mechanisms, to feed the increasing population. Such a trajectory is fraught with risks, but it is also pushed forward by advantages it bestows on its participants who organize and cooperate. Advantages might include sharing food across groups in a village, investment in facilities to improve the processing and storage of food, and cooperative labor pools and social groupings larger than villages, which would enable organized long-distance hunts and participation in trading networks. Larger and larger villages became possible, but this also made the system vulnerable to collapse. A reliance on the management of resources through cooperative action reduced their flexibility of action, so that when poor seasons occurred, people were seriously hurt. Thus an expectable aberration in the climatic regime may have been enough to cause the collapse of the village system in the Dolores area.

  题目:

  1. The word “ultimately” in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. quietly

  B. gradually

  C. eventually

  D. simply

  2. According to paragraph 1, other archaeologists differ from Tim Kohler in giving which of the following as the reason for the abandonment of settlements by the Anasazi?

  A. The nature of human interaction with the environment

  B. A large increase in population over a short period of time

  C. The way in which people gathered together in villages

  D. A limited production of corn due to one short growing season after another Paragraph 1 is marked with an arrow [ð]

  3. According to paragraph 1, Kohler views all of the following as changes that occurred as a result of increased population growth EXCEPT

  A. the organization of the people into villages

  B. the improvement of local soils

  C. increased food production

  D. a decrease in the number of trees in the area

  4. The word “substantial” in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. gradual

  B. appropriate

  C. apparent

  D. significant

  5. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 2 as changes over time in the pattern of wood use in prehistoric settlements EXCEPT:

  A. Cottonwood was increasingly used in hearths.

  B. Fewer pinon trees were used in building construction.

  C. Juniper wood was increasingly used in hearths.

  D. The pinon wood used in construction came increasingly from older trees.

  6. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that juniper

  A. is less valuable nutritionally than pinon is

  B. is easily destroyed by fire

  C. produces fewer seeds per plant than pinon does

  D. reproduces easily in the presence of pinon

  以上是2018年12月8日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容,点击下载2018年12月8日托福考试机经完整内容,获取托福考试真题,让你熟悉和熟练掌握托福考试题目。本次机经真题较多,希望考生可以早做准备,从而预留出更多的时间来备考。

  【相关托福机经推荐】

  2018年12月1日托福考试口语机经预测  

  2018年12月1日托福考试写作机经预测

  2018年12月1日托福考试听力机经预测  

  2018年12月1日托福考试阅读机经预测

点击即可下载
2018年12月8日托福阅读机经之真题预测及练习.pdf 2018年12月8日托福阅读机经之高频词汇.pdf
  • 北京
  • 成都
  • 大连
  • 合肥
  • 西安
  • 武汉
  • 南京
  • 广州
  • 天津
010-5795-2000

北京总公司

全国统一咨询热线:010-5795-2000 工作时间:周一至周日(8:30-21:30) 地址:北京市海淀区中关村丹棱街3号 中国电子大厦B座15层

成都分公司

全国统一咨询热线:010-5795-2000 工作时间:周一至周日(8:30-21:30) 地址:四川省成都市锦江区红星路三段一号 IFS国际金融中心二号办公楼18层1811

大连分公司

全国统一咨询热线:010-5795-2000 工作时间:周一至周日(8:30-21:30) 地址:大连沙河口区黄河路620号现代服务业总部大厦19层 C2D1

合肥分公司

全国统一咨询热线:010-5795-2000 工作时间:周一至周日(8:30-21:30) 地址:安徽省合肥市蜀山区长江西路189号之心城写字楼环球中心A座17层1703

西安分公司

全国统一咨询热线:010-5795-2000 工作时间:周一至周日(8:30-21:30) 地址:陕西省西安市碑林区南关正街88号长安国际中心A座10层1001

武汉分公司

全国统一咨询热线:010-5795-2000 工作时间:周一至周日(8:30-21:30) 地址:武汉市洪山区珞瑜路10号群光二期写字楼34层01-10号
选址中
选址中
选址中

版权所有:北京环球百利教育科技有限公司

Copyright @ 2004-2018 Bailitop Education. All Right Reserved 备案许可证号:京ICP备11003081号 | 京公网安备11010802010640

打开微信

搜索“百利天下留学”

关注并回复“ZL

获取免费留学资料

考试资料下载

立即下载