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[百利机经] 2019年1月12日托福考试阅读机经预测

信息来源: 百利天下出国考试 发布时间:2018-12-28 直达下载地址

摘要:2019年1月12日托福考试阅读机经预测,内含近年托福阅读真题,是2019年旧题重考重点,希望对各位考生的备考有帮助。

关键词:2019年1月12日托福考试阅读机经预测,2019年1月12日托福考试机经预测
机经内容:

  转眼2018年就要过去了,不知道大家有没有和托福顺利分手。都不要紧,因为只要有决心,肯努力,就一定会成功。2018年百利托福机经陪大家走过了第四个年头,2018年我们收获了较高的命中率,尤其是写作和口语两个单项,旧题重考的频率很高,百利机经也连续命中真题。2019年我们会不断优化和创新,希望能够继续为大家提供实用的托福机经内容。

  本文和大家分享2019年1月12日托福考试阅读机经预测,包括范文、背景知识、学术场景、常考词汇等,能够突破托福考试中的疑难问题。本文是2019年1月12日托福考试阅读机经预测,真题内容较多,帮助考生逐一攻克。

  2019年1月12日托福考试阅读机经预测(部分内容展示):

  真题来源:2015-2-1CN The Chaco Phenomenon

  •P1: Between about 900 to 1150 AD, a mysterious Stone Age culture arose, flourished, and then vanished in the semi-desert region of the Southwestern United States. Named the Chaco culture after the canyon in which the principal ruins are found, nearly everything about this ancient society is shrouded in mystery. A truly remarkable transformation in settlement patterns occurred in the San Juan basin in northwestern New Mexico, with small household farmsteads giving way to aggregated communities centered on communal masonry buildings that are now called "great houses.” These multi-level buildings of up to 800 rooms are scattered over thousands of square miles of the Four Corners area of the Southwest. The entire episode of great house construction in Chaco, the Bonito phase (A.D. 900-”40). was signifying an pronounced period of immense cooperative effort. Pueblo Chetro Ketl's outer wall alone is calculated to be composed of 30 million stones which were brought to the canyon from distances between 80 and 150 kilometers away. Many of the stones had to be shaped before being positioned and built into a huge project. But by 1140 AD, the massive construction ceased abruptly, followed by a rapid decline in use of the great houses find apparent abandonment of the canyon in the thirteenth century.

  •P2: For more than a century archaeologists have struggled to understand the circumstances surrounding the rise and collapse of Chacoan society一dubbed the Chaco Phenomenon. Specifically, research has focused on determing why such an apparently inhospitable place as Chaco, which today is extremely arid and has very short growing seasons, should have been favored for the concentration of labor that must have been required for such massive construction projects over brief periods of time. Until the 1970s, scholars and the public alike had a long-shared notion that Chaco had been a forested oasis that attracted farmers who Initially nourished but eventually fell victim to their own success and exuberance, as they employed unsustainable land-use practices build their Impressive communities. Yet there is no substantial evidence, archaeological, otherwise, to support such contention.

  •P3: However, recent geological field studies in Chaco have produced some table-turning evidence that may require a significant reassessment of the assumption that the canyon was not a favorable agricultural setting. It appears that during the extraordinary construction boom in the first half of the eleventh century, a devastating flood occurred, resulting in extreme difficulty irrigating the area. A large natural lake, near the biggest concentration of great houses, may have existed at the western end of Chaco and might have suspended which would then have flowed into the canyon. The presence of an abundance of water and, equally important, a source of sediment that replenished agricultural fields, presumably made the canyon an extremely attractive place for newly arriving people from the northern San Juan River basin. In fact, during the 1980s, this reconstruction was largely dismissed in response to evidence that there were only scattered trees along cliffs and escarpments above the canyon rather than woodlands in the first place, and that canyon soil was highly sensitive to increase in aridity and temperature and thus unsuitable for farming, regardless of the amount of trees. As long-standing scientific consensus was undergoing this transformation, the position of the canyon within a regional network of dispersed agricultural communities called up more academic attention.

  P4: The adoption of a regional perspective in explaining the Chaco Phenomenon was based m part on the discovery of formal trails. A combination of remote sensing techniques and ground verification defined a prehistoric road system which extended outward from Chaco Canyon into the surrounding San Juan Basin, later referred to as Chaco -outliers." These trails are densest around the concentration of great houses in the center, and the canyon itself is roughly at the center of the basin. Consequently, Chaco Canyon was intimately related to other settlements in a single cultural web flung across 30,000 square miles and which reached into Colorado and Utah, all tied together by a network of ancient roads. The current consensus view is that religion provided the fundamental explanation for this centrifugal pattern.

  P5: After close study of great kivas (multipurpose rooms used for religious, political, and social functions), archeologists , tend to depict Chaco as a location of high devotional expression and the pilgrimage center of a sacred landscape. The kiva structure itself, of whatever size, occupies a special and sacred place in Pueblo architecture. Excavation of some of these vaults suggests that they were once associated with ceremonies. Archaeological record presented some ritual artifacts, including caches of turquoise beads and pendants, unusual ceramic vessels and wooden objects, several rooms with multiple human burials, and especially the large number of kivas found in great houses. Most of these indicators occur only at Pueblo Bonito, but archaeologists generally assume that all the great houses had a similar ritual function. Some scholars have even argued that the great houses were temples instead of residences.

  题目:

  1. The word "signifying” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. creating

  B. indicating

  C. initiating

  D. requiring

  2. The word “ceased” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. stow down

  B. accelerated

  C. stopped

  D. changed in style

  3. According to paragraph 1, all of the following provide evidence that the Bonito phase was a time of immense cooperative effort EXCEPT

  A. the large amounts of material needed

  B. the size of the Pueblo Bonito complex

  C. the unusual materials used in construction

  D. the distance the materials needed to be transported

  4 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential Information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information

  A. Researchers have tried to establish why an area as dry Chaco was the site of such large construction efforts.

  B. Researchers have tried to establish whether the concentration of massive construction projects in a brief period of time made Chaco the dry area that it is today.

  C. Researchers have established that Chaco's brief growing season required a concentration of labor to produce large quantities of rood in a short period of time

  D. Researchers have established that the hot, dry climate of Chaco forced workers to complete construction on large buildings in short periods of time.

  5. According to paragraph 2, before 1970, scholars believed that Chacoan society collapsed because

  A. Chaco never had the forests that were needed for the development of a stable agricultural economy

  B. farmers used up the natural resources in Chaco that had originally allowed the society to succeed.

  C. Chaco suffered a long-term drought that prevented farmers from growing enough food

  D. laborers left Chaco to find other work after they finished building the great houses there.

  6. It can be Inferred from paragraph 2 that the pre-1970s theory about the Chaco Phenomenon

  A. was based on the widespread farm and tool remains found by archaeologists on the site.

  B. was largely reinforced by findings in the 1980s

  C. was not supported by substantial evidence.

  D. was so strong that it went unchallenged for many decades.

  以上是2019年1月12日托福考试阅读机经预测的部分内容,点击下载2019年1月12日托福考试机经完整内容,获取托福考试真题,让你熟悉和熟练掌握托福考试题目。本次机经真题较多,希望考生可以早做准备,从而预留出更多的时间来备考。

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