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2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读真题及解析

信息来源: 网络   发布时间:2018-01-08
摘  要:

2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读部分考了11个词汇题,其中6个来自百利机经中的高频词汇。因此,希望考生可以多关注百利机经,做好备考准备。

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2018年1月6日下午场托福阅读真题及解析,2018年1月6日托福阅读真题及解析

  2018年1月6日托福阅读真题,小编整理了文章的梗概,考生可以通过阅读文章的概要简单了解阅读考查要点。接下来,大家详细了解一下2018年1月6日下午场托福阅读真题及解析内容。

  2018年1月6日托福阅读真题-Passage One

  学科分类:地质类

  题目:Sea Ice

  内容回忆:

  第一段:浮冰季节性的形成和消融会对地球地貌产生巨大的影响。

  第二段:浮冰会将太阳光反射到大气层中,而没有浮冰的海水会吸收热量。因为温室效应,全球变暖冰山融化,海水吸收更多热量,就会导致浮冰进一步融化。

  第三段:当浮冰形成时,会产生一种positive effect,将冰层中的盐分排放到附近的海水中,这些海水盐分很高就会沉到海底。这种positive effect和风力一起影响洋流的行径。

  第四段:浮冰对航海探索也造成了印象,例如在19世纪,有一支船队在夏季结束的时候去航海探索,但是被浮冰困住了,浮冰挤压的力量使船崩溃瓦解。而后来,另一支船队在天气暖的时候去,探索非常顺利。

  2018年1月6日托福阅读真题-Passage Two

  学科分类:考古类

  题目:Impacts and Mass Extinctions

  内容回忆:

  Meteorites and impact craters bear witness to the fact that large impacts occasionally occur on Earth. Meteor Crater in the northern Arizona desert of the United States formed about 50,000 years ago when a metallic impactor roughly 50 meters across crashed to Earth with the explosive power of a 20-megaton hydrogen bomb. Although the crater is only slightly more than one kilometer across, an area covering hundreds of square kilometers was probably battered by the blast and ejecta—the debris ejected or displaced during the formation of an impact crater. Far bigger impacts have occurred, sometimes with catastrophic consequences for life on Earth.

  While collecting geological samples in Italy in 1978, the father-son team of Luis and Walter Alvarez discovered a thin layer of dark sediment that had apparently been deposited 65 million years ago—at about the same time that the dinosaurs and many other organisms suddenly became extinct. Subsequent studies found similar sediment deposited at the same time at many sites around the world. Careful analysis showed this worldwide sediment layer to be rich in iridium, and element that is rare on Earth’s surface. But iridium is common in primitive meteorites, which led the Alvarezes to a stunning conclusion: the extinction of the dinosaurs was caused by the impact of an asteroid or comet. This conclusion was not immediately accepted and still generates some controversy, but it now seems clear that a major impact coincided with the death of the dinosaurs. While the dinosaurs were the most famous victims of this mass extinction, it seems that up to 99 percent of all living things were killed and that 75 percent of all species living on Earth were wiped out at that time.

  How could an impact lead to mass extinction? The amount of iridium deposited worldwide suggests that the impactor must have been about 10 kilometers across. After a decade-long search, scientists identified what appears to be the impact crater from the event. Located off the coast of Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula, it is 200 kilometers across, which is close to what one would expect for a 10-kilometer impactor, and dates to 65 million years ago. Further evidence that the Yucatan crater is the right one comes from the distribution of small glassy spheres that formed when the molten impact ejecta solidified as it rained back to Earth. More of these glassy spheres are found in regions near the crater, and careful study of their distribution suggests that the impactor crashed to Earth at a slight angle. These pieces of once molten rock are evidence of an explosion powerful enough to instantly melt bedrock and propel it far from its origin. The impact almost immediately sent a shower of debris raining across much of North and South America and generated huge waves that may have sloshed more than 1,000 kilometers inland. Many North American species thus may have been wiped out shortly after impact. For the rest of the world, death may have come more slowly. Heat from the impact and returning ejecta probably ignited wildfires in forests around the world. Evidence of wildfires is found in the large amount of soot (a black powdery form of carbon produced when coal, wood, or oil is burned) that is also present in the indium-rich sediment from 65 million years ago. The impact also sent huge quantities of dust high into the stratosphere, where it remained for several years, blocking out sunlight, cooling the surface, and affecting atmospheric chemistry. Plants died for lack of sunlight, and effects propagated throughout the food chain.

  Perhaps the most astonishing fact is not that 75 percent of all species died, but that 25 percent survived. Among the survivors were a few small, rodent-like mammals. These mammals may have survived because they lived in underground burrows and managed to store enough food to outlast the long spell of cold, dark days. Small mammals had first arisen at about the same time as the dinosaurs, more than 100 million years earlier. But the sudden disappearance of the dominant dinosaurs made these mammals dominant.

  2018年1月6日托福阅读真题-Passage Three

  学科分类:地质类

  题目:Determine Earth’s Age

  内容回忆:

  第一段:如何测定地球的年龄,一直以来都是困扰人类的一个难题,直到19世纪才有科学家提出相关的理论。第一个理论认为地球一开始是熔融状态,可以用火山温度降至常温所需要的时间,推算出地球从一开始的熔融状态到现在的固体状态,这中间需要多少时间。

  第二段:后来另一个科学家提出,假定海洋里一开始都是淡水,那么根据每年流入大海的盐分,和海水现在的总盐度,可以推算出地球年龄。但这两种办法都缺乏事实依据,都只是人们的猜想。

  第三段:再后来,人们通过测定岩石中放射性元素的半衰期来判定岩石的年龄,并且开始在地球上寻找最古老的岩石。但是地球的形成在岩石凝固成固体之前,所以通过岩石年龄来判定地球年龄也是不准确的。

  第四段:最后科学家通过地球形成之时产生的一个陨石坑中的元素,测定了地球的年龄。

  词汇题汇总:

  1、profound=far-reaching

  2、key=critical

  3、vital=essential

  4、stress=emphasis

  5、intact=keep original condition

  6、explicit=clear stated

  7、conclusive=definitive

  8、hazard=danger

  9、refine=improve

  10、subsequent=later

  11、tragedy=disaster

  词汇题命中情况:
2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读真题及解析
2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读真题及解析
2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读真题及解析
2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读真题及解析
2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读真题及解析
2018年1月6日(下午场)托福考试阅读真题及解析

  以上就是2018年1月6日托福考试阅读真题的全部内容,内容为考生回忆,所以仅有文章概要。不过,从本次考试的主要内容中,考生依旧可以了解到近期托福考试阅读真题的话题。

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