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托福阅读句子简化题中的因果逻辑

信息来源: 网络   发布时间:2018-05-05
摘  要:

今天我给大家讲解一下托福句子简化题中的一大重点逻辑:因果逻辑。因果逻辑是句子简化题第一大逻辑考点,ETS偏爱这种考题。

关键字:

托福阅读句子简化题,托福阅读

  ETS偏爱托福阅读句子简化题是由于表示因果的逻辑词很丰富,而且因果的大逻辑当中又可以插入其他逻辑混淆考生。希望大家锻炼出火眼金睛的能力先找出因果大关系,然后再排除小地雷,题目选项迎刃而解。

  句子简化题中的因果逻辑

  首先,请大家牢记以下表示因果的逻辑词包括表示因为的because, since, as, for, 表示所以的so, therefore, as a result, in consequence, 后面加名词的due to, because of和result from, 后面加结果的lead to, result in, cause这些重点逻辑词。还有隐形因果词比如explain, account for都是前因后果。题目当中遇到这些词一定要敏感因果逻辑和谁是因谁是果。如果大逻辑是因果,选项是必然体现因果关系不能省略的。

  比如:Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.

  6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  ○Upper Paleolithic people, like many contemporary peoples, believed that if they drew a human image in their cave art, it would cause death or injury.

  ○Many contemporary people believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury, so they, like Upper Paleolithic people, rarely depicted human figures in their cave art.

  ○If Upper Paleolithic people, like many contemporary peoples, believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, this belief might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.

  ○Although many contemporary peoples believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury, researchers cannot explain why Upper Paleolithic people rarely depicted human figures in their cave art.

  我们会发现这句里面有明显因果信号词explain why和一个cause:

  Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.

  所以大因果关系是原因:the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury; 结果:human figures are rarely depicted in cave art (因为旧石器时代人们相信画人物会导致死亡或者伤害,这可能会解释为什么岩壁艺术中很少出现人物形象)。这个因果关系是主要结构,绝对不能省略。观察选项只有BC保留了这层因果,B中的主语是contemporary people偷换概念,所以应该选C If Upper Paleolithic people, like many contemporary peoples, believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, this belief might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art. 体现了主要因果关系。

  有时候因果逻辑关系中还会嵌套其他小逻辑,比如并列或者条件,那么我们的逻辑层次也要是先抓因果,再抓其他。比如:

  The extreme seriousness of desertification results from the vast areas of land and the tremendous numbers of people affected, as well as from the great difficulty of reversing or even slowing the process.

  本句大因果关系是导致沙漠化的原因,其次才是并列的三个小原因:地方大,人多,不可逆转。所以对应的选项为:Desertification is a significant problem because it is so hard to reverse and affects large areas of land. 注意,小并列可以省略一个,但是主要因果关系不能省。

  下面给同学们三个题目进行练习,有兴趣的同学可以翻译原句,看谁更精准。

  Q1 He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence from the passage?

  Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  ○Edison was more interested in developing a variety of machines than in developing a technology based on only one.

  ○Edison refused to work on projection technology because he did not think exhibitors would replace their projectors with newer machines.

  ○Edison did not want to develop projection technology because it limited the number of machines he could sell.

  ○Edison would not develop projection technology unless exhibitors agreed to purchase more than one projector from him.

  Q2 In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them----even while building materials have changed dramatically.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  ○Unchanging physical laws have limited the size and strength of buildings that can be made with materials discovered long ago.

  ○Building materials have changed in order to increase architectural size and strength, but physical laws of structure have not changed.

  ○When people first started to build, the structural methods used to provide strength and size were inadequate because they were not based on physical laws.

  ○Unlike building materials, the methods of support used in architecture have not changed over time because they are based on physical laws.

  Q3 Many ecologists now think that the relative long-term stability of climax communities comes not from diversity but from the “patchiness” of the environment, an environment that varies from place to place supports more kinds of organisms than an environment that is uniform.

  Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incurred choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  ○Ecologists now think that the stability of an environment is a result of diversity rather than patchiness.

  ○Patchy environments that vary from place to place do not often have high species diversity.

  ○Uniform environments cannot be climax communities because they do not support as many types of organisms as patchy environments.

  ○A patchy environment is thought to increase stability because it is able to support a wide variety of organisms.

  以上就是小编为大家整理托福阅读句子简化题中的因果逻辑的介绍,希望能够帮助大家备考。小编祝大家都能取得理想的考试成绩。

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