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这样做托福阅读,什么题型都不怕

信息来源: 网络   发布时间:2018-05-05
摘  要:

阅读作为托福考试的开篇,预示着是否能为考试奠定一个良好的基础。然而很多同学却在阅读备考时陷入了误区,没有掌握阅读的真正章法,只是单纯地去找答案,所以正确率时高时低。

关键字:

托福阅读题型,托福阅读

  托福阅读的成败就在于知道答案在哪里,而非答案是什么。明白作者的写作思路,找到文章的段与段之前、句子与句子之间的逻辑关系,掌握正确做题思路,以不变应万变才是关键。今天我们主要从逻辑关系、否定词、态度词、学术词四个方面为大家进行了总结手把手教你文章到底应该怎么读迅速打通你托福阅读的任督二脉!

  1.逻辑关系最重要

  一般来讲,托福阅读中常见的逻辑关系主要有转折逻辑、并列逻辑、比较逻辑、因果逻辑、举例逻辑五种。

  逻辑是一篇文章的灵魂,也是出题者的集中地,考试中经常以混淆逻辑关系为出题点,所以快速识别出文章中的逻辑关系绝对是阅读备考的重中之重。托福文章多以科普性文章居多,有时逻辑关系表达的比较隐晦,一时间可能难以识别,但是这些都可以通过平时的训练进行提高,直至形成条件性反射。

  下面就是为大家整理的一些逻辑关系的提示词,看到这些词,大家就要警觉起来,迅速识别出是哪种逻辑关系!但是这些提示词也仅供参考,大家还是要考虑具体语境。

  注:以下例句均出自托福TPO阅读。

  转折逻辑

  这是必须掌握的逻辑关系,很容易出题。我们把让步与转折都归到这里,因为它们的提示词往往很相似,但是具体是让步还是转折我们还是根据语境分析。转折,常见于前后具有两个完全相反的意思;而让步往往有欲扬先抑、先贬后煲的意味,提及的信息有一种预料之外的感觉。

  but / however 最容易辨别的提示词

  The green iceberg did not contain large amounts of particles from these organisms, butthe ice had accumulated dissolved organic matter from the seawater.

  even though / even if 虽然,即使

  Even if the new population is of a different species, it can approximately fill the niche vacated by the extinct population and keep the food web intact.

  nonetheless / nevertheless 尽管如此,然而

  A warm-blooded turtle may seem to be a contradiction in terms. Nonetheless, an adult leatherback can maintain a body temperature of between 25 and 26°C (77-79°F) in seawater that is only 8°C (46.4°F).

  despite / in spite of 尽管

  But the shortage of crews proved to be a greater and greater problem, despitecontinuous appeal to Venic’s tradition of maritime greatness.

  at least 隐含让步

  At least in temperate zones, maximum diversity is often found in mid-successional stages, not in the climax community.

  seem to后常见转折

  One Lascaux narrative picture, which shows a man with a birdlike head and a wounded animal, would seem to lend credence to this third opinion, but there is still much that remains unexplained.

  并列逻辑

  出现并列时要注意,要迅速把并列对象联系起来,很可能会在except题中出现。同时,某些并列词常伴随着对比转折关系。

  and / both ……and…… 最明显的并列提示词。名词间用and连接表并列,句子间用and连接常表递进

  It swims farther into the cold of the northern and southern oceans than any other sea turtle, and it deals with the chilly waters in a way unique among reptiles.

  between……and…… / among

  Generally, there is uncertainty as to whether very young children can distinguishbetween fantasy and reality in advertising.

  as well as 还有

  All had immediate access to the sea, and this had important implications for a significant international resource, fish, as well as for cheap transport, merchant marines, and the shipbuilding industry.

  together with 伴随

  Recent measurements made in the field together with laboratory simulations offer a promising explanation of how this structure of charged particles forms.

  comprise / consist 包含

  The greater Pacific region, traditionally called Oceania, consists of three cultural areas: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

  either……or…… / neither……nor……

  Steam also promised to eliminate a transportation problem not fully solved by eithercanal boats or turnpikes.

  apart from 除了

  Apart from statues representing deities, kings, and named members of the elite that can be called formal, there is another group of three-dimensional representations that depicts generic figures, frequently servants, from the nonelite population.

  比较逻辑

  主要集中在相同相似、相反相异、比较级与最高级。另外,在涉及到两个不同的对象,转折逻辑可以转换为比较逻辑。

  previously 时间先后对比

  Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures, and slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to several hundred spectators at a time.

  the first time 第一次 隐含的和以前的比较,以前没有过

  For the first time, people began to talk about ice ages.

  比较级

  Mass-produced goods were accompanied by fewer more aesthetically impressive objects such as statuettes.

  最高级

  It was constructed in the latest Italian style

  倍数

  Furthermore, other studies show that Caucasian American mother-child pairs talk about past events three times more often than do Korean mother-child pairs.

  similar / same / different 表相同相似与不同

  The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way.

  relatively / comparatively

  On Mars, there are relatively few craters less than 5 kilometers in diameter.

  rather than 而不是,两者对比

  There is little doubt, however, that desertification in most areas results primarily from human activities rather than natural processes.

  by contrast 与前者正反对比

  By contrast, the large zebra lives on the masses of low-quality stem material.

  likewise 同样地

  The wildebeests follow, in their migration, the pattern of local rainfall. The other species do likewise.

  some……others…… 转折逻辑可以转换为比较逻辑

  It is anthropologically important to inquire into the conditions that made some societies adopt agriculture while others remained hunter-gatherers or horticulturalists.

  因果逻辑

  一定要搞清楚原因和结果,常见错误选项设置即因果倒置。

  because / so / therefore 最明显的因果逻辑提示词

  Because the surface of the water table is not flat but instead rises and falls with topography, groundwater is affected by gravity in the same fashion as surface water.

  cause / lead to 原因导致结果

  In Europe as a whole, the exceptional reduction in the population and the related fall in demand for grain since the beginning of the seventeenth century had caused the price of agricultural products to fall.

  result / consequence 结果是……的原因

  The great height of Martian volcanoes is a direct consequence of the planet’s low surface gravity.

  after 后面跟隐含的原因

  After projectors became popular, Edison lost money, and although he had previously refused to develop projection technology, now be was forced to do so.

  once 后面跟隐含的原因

  Once seen by the natives, such objects created a fashion which rapidly spread through the province.

  举例逻辑

  举例是把一类事物落实到具体的事物上,常见于推断题。例如:

  我喜欢打游戏,比如荒野行动。

  可推出“荒野行动是游戏”以及“我喜欢荒野行动”。

  such as

  The use of celebrities such as singers and movie stars is common in advertising.

  like

  Consequently, the timing and rhythms of biological functions must closely match periodic events like the solar day, the tides, the lunar cycle, and the seasons.

  2.隐含否定要警惕

  文章中出现否定也要特别注意,往往也是出题点,有可能把肯定变成否定,否定变肯定,而且往往会出现一些隐性否定词,大家也学会识别。例如:

  否定词

  underestimate;not at all;in the absence of;difficult;it is not surprising that;rarely;oppositely;unable to;prevent from;exclude exclusion;little;keep from;compromise;unreliable;nonagricultural;discard;have nothing to do;a lack of。

  3.不同态度要弄清

  托福阅读中关于态度的表达主要集中在学者的态度与公众的态度两种,常见态度有疑问、矛盾、不确定、惊讶、正面、负面。

  态度词

  underestimate 低估;look down on 看不起;look up to 尊敬;think / believe 态度提示词;favor / unfavor;support;withstand;contradictory;susceptible;suitable;unique;
contradiction;problem;suspect;work perfectly;criticize;vital

  4.学术词汇不能忘

  学术词汇分为学术名词与学术动词,主要是涉及到举例、定义、实验、说明等情况,也是需要特别注意的词。

  学术名词

  type;standard;result;factor;feature;explanation;theory;experiment

  evidence;solution;context;foundation;view;answer;clue;evidence

  学术动词

  introduce;illustrate;demonstrate;identify;show;reveal;find;provide;produce

  indicate;demonstrate;recognize;represent;suggest;assume;retain;discover

  下面我们以TPO 11 第一篇文章第二段为例,与大家一起来分析一下究竟什么是正确阅读托福文章的套路。

  The majority【多数,暗含了比较】 of three-dimensional representations【复数词,易展开】, whether 【让步】standing, seated, or【并列】 kneeling, exhibit【学术】what is called frontality: they face straight ahead, neither twisting nor turning【并列】. When such statues are viewed in isolation, out of 【负向词】 their original context 【学术】and 【并列】without【否定】 knowledge of their function【学术】, it is easy【态度】 to criticize【否定 态度】them for their rigid attitudes 【态度】that remained unchanged【否定】for three thousand years. Frontality is, however,【转折】 directly related to 【隐含因果词】the functions of Egyptian statuary and the contexts in which the statues were set up. Statues were created not 【否定】for their decorative effect but 【转折】to play a primary role in the cults of the gods, the king, and 【并列】the dead. They were designed to be put in places where these beings could manifest themselves in order to 【目的】be the recipients of ritual actions. Thus【因果】 it made sense to show the statue looking ahead at what was happening in front of it, so that【因果】 the living performer of the ritual could interact with the divine or deceased recipient. Very often such statues were enclosed in rectangular shrines or 【并列】wall niches whose only opening was at the front, making it natural for the statue to display frontality. Other【比较】 statues were designed to be placed within an architectural setting, for instance,【举例】 in front of the monumental entrance gateways to temples known as pylons, or in pillared courts, where they would be placed against or between pillars: their frontality worked perfectly【态度】 within the architectural context.

  以上就是今天为大家带来的这样做托福阅读,什么题型都不怕,希望对大家有所帮助。阅读并没有大家想象的那么难,我们要学会以不变应万变,关键是掌握阅读文章的正确套路,在不断练习中学会总结,相信阅读水平一定会大有长进!

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